Products are products produced and sold to consumers

Products are products produced and sold to consumers
Understanding Products - Products or goods are the results of the production process pursued by the company or manufacturer which will then be sold to consumers. Some of the company's income derived from products sold to consumers who buy these products. Here are some definitions of the product according to experts: Kotler and Amnstrong (1996: 274) According to Kotler and Armstrong, the notion of a product is everything that is offered in the market to get attention, be used, be bought and can satisfy the desires or needs of consumers. Jhonny Santono (on International Journals Literature) According to Stanton, the definition of a product is all tangible or intangible attributes including packaging, color, price, quality and also the brand plus services and reputation. Based on some understanding of the product according to the experts above, it can be concluded that the product is a means of satisfying the needs and desires of consumers offered by the company either tangible or intangible something that aims to meet consumer needs.
M. Taufiq Amir According to M. Taufiq Amir, the definition of a product is what is offered in the market so that it can be bought, used or consumed so that it can satisfy their wants and needs. Fandy Tjiptono (1999: 95) According to Fandy Tjiptono, the conceptual understanding of the product is a subjective understanding of the manufacturer of a matter that can be offered as an effort to achieve the company's goals through meeting the needs and desires of consumers in accordance with the competence and capacity of the company and purchasing power.
Swastha and Irawan (1990: 165) The definition of product according to Swastha and Irawan is a complex trait whether it can be touched or cannot be touched which can include color, packaging, price, company prestige, service, etc. Product Levels At this time, entrepreneurs are no longer only competing to make products but they are also competing in additional aspects of the product such as packaging, service, advertising and other factors that can benefit consumers.
According to Kotler there are several product levels, including the following: Core Benefits (Core Benefits): The most basic benefits of a thing purchased by consumers. Basic Products: Basic products that can fulfill the most basic product functions. Expected Products: Buyers or consumers have expectations for the goods or services they buy. Augmented Product: An added value beyond what is expected by consumers. Potential Products: Looking for the added value of another product in the future.
Product Classification According to Kotler (2007: 6), based on the durability and appearance of the product can be classified into 3 (three) categories: 1. Non-Durable Goods Items that are used up or are not durable are tangible items and will usually run out if consumed in one or several uses. It can be said that this type of goods has an economic age under normal use of less than one year. 2. Durable Goods This type of product is tangible and can last a long time in accordance with its economic life. In general, this type of product requires a warranty from the seller or manufacturer. 3. Services (Service) Service products are activities, benefits and satisfaction offered for sale such as car repair shops, beauty salons, etc. Thus the discussion about Product Definition is, Levels and Classifications.

Humans have produced a diversity of domestic animals

Humans have produced a diversity of domestic animals
Many gene codes for proteins, which in turn carry out metabolic processes that keep the organism alive and reproducing. Genetic diversity can be measured as chemical diversity in different species produces a variety of chemicals in their cells, both protein and metabolic products and byproducts. This chemical diversity has potential benefits for humans as a source of medicines, thus providing a way to measure diversity that is important for human health and well-being. Humans have produced a diversity of domestic animals, plants and fungi.
This diversity also suffers from losses due to migration, market forces, and increased globalization in agriculture, especially in highly populated areas such as China, India, and Japan. Human populations are directly dependent on this diversity as a stable food source, the decline is disturbing biologists and agricultural scientists research journals. It is also useful for determining ecosystem diversity: the number of different ecosystems on the planet or in certain geographical regions. Entire ecosystems can be lost even if some species might survive by adapting to other ecosystems. The loss of ecosystems means the loss of interaction between species, loss of unique features of co-adaptation, and loss of biological productivity that ecosystems are able to create.
An example of an ecosystem that is largely extinct in North America is the grassland ecosystem. The prairie once stretches the center of North America from the boreal forest in northern Canada down to Mexico. Now, they have largely disappeared, replaced by agricultural land, pasture, and urban development. Many of the species survive, but the highly productive ecosystems that are responsible for creating the most productive agricultural land are now gone. As a result, the land disappears or must be protected at a greater cost.
Despite considerable effort, knowledge of the species inhabiting the planet is limited. Recent estimates indicate that the number of identified eukaryote species, around 1.5 million species, reaches less than 20 percent of the total number of eukaryotic species present on the planet (8.7 million species, by one estimate) (Figure 1). Estimates of the number of prokaryotic species are largely guessed, but biologists agree that science is only beginning to catalog their diversity. Even with what is known, there is no central repository of names or samples of species described, so there is no way to ensure that 1.5 million is an accurate number.
This is the best estimate based on the opinion of experts in different taxonomic groups. Given the earth's loss of species in a fast tempo, science knows very little about what is being lost. There are various initiatives to make species catalogs explained in an easily accessible way, the internet is facilitating that effort. Nevertheless, it has been shown that at the current level of species description, which according to the State of Observed Species Report is 17,000 to 20,000 new species per year, it will take nearly 500 years to complete describing life on this planet.
Naming and counting species may seem to be an unnecessary pursuit given other human needs, but the calculations are not that simple. Describing species is a complex process in which biologists determine the unique characteristics of an organism and whether organisms belonging to other species are described or not. This allows biologists to find and recognize species after initial discovery, which allows them to follow up on questions about biology. In addition, the unique characteristics of each species make it potentially valuable to humans or other species on which humans depend. Understanding these characteristics is the value of searching and naming species.

Help cognitive growth using puzzle games

Help cognitive growth using puzzle games
Helping cognitive growth using puzzle games for children is it possible? The answer is very possible. Play is a part of children's lives. We realize that young children can learn new skills quickly. They don't complain much or feel lazy when facing something that looks challenging. Look at their milestone so fast. They can walk, talk, write and play musical instruments quickly. Though everything is very complex, but children live it calmly. Compare if adults are just learning some of these things, it might take longer than small children. The ability to learn quickly in the early years of child development is an ideal opportunity to learn the skills to solve puzzle games for children who sharpen the brain. The development of a child's brain will be more rapid if we take a lot of time to play puzzle or other educational game tools (Onsodigh Balogune on Implementing A Crossword Puzzle Game Journal).
Types of Puzzle Games For Children Young children may not care what type of puzzle they are playing with, they just enjoy playing puzzles for hours. They are curious and always try to solve the puzzle they face. Not too many children realize that certain types of puzzle games can exercise their brains. They only know that playing puzzle is fun because playing is the world of children. Puzzle games or many kinds of puzzles. If all this time you only know jigsaw puzzles, word search puzzles or labyrinths, you are lucky to find this article.
The following types of puzzle games for children that can be played: Mechanical Puzzles This type of puzzle is the most common game in the community. Examples of this type of mechanical puzzle include jigsaw puzzles, nail puzzles and rubik boxes. Children will easily master puzzle solving skills if they start to teach from childhood. Logic Puzzles Logic puzzle is a puzzle game for children that must be solved by following a few rules. Generally puzzles like this have a unique solution, where the puzzle will be more easily solved if we complete some parts of the solver
Examples of this type of puzzle include Sudoku, Picross and logic grid puzzles. Math Puzzle Teaching mathematics traditionally will reduce children's interest in mathematics. Most children do not like math, but if the learning method is done with interactive media it might be a different story. Using a math puzzle game will make a pleasant impression in solving calculation problems. Word Puzzles Word puzzles is a puzzle game for children that can add insight into language. Vocabulary mastery is the key to completing word puzzle games.
Examples of these puzzles include crosswords and boggles. Trivia Puzzles Trivia puzzles are identical to quizzes on the Internet. This game is synonymous with puzzles that use attractive designs with good graphic elements. This puzzle is also identical to an explicit message so that it requires unique knowledge and is usually found on the Internet. Benefits of Puzzle Games For Children Getting children to solve puzzles by gathering information, understanding situations and finding solutions quickly will prepare children for life in adulthood.
Puzzles and puzzle games help strengthen the logic of children, teach how to think critically, understand visualization of images, hone creativity, and improve motor skills. Here are some of the main reasons why puzzle games for kids are very useful: Persistence Puzzles and puzzle games may require repeated experiments to solve a puzzle. Children will be taught how to be persistent in solving puzzles despite several failures. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Puzzle games for children are a great way for children to learn scientific methods.
Children will learn how to hypothesize, then do tests until they can conclude something. In some games, children may get stuck on puzzles that are difficult to solve. This actually trains children to think critically to solve these problems. Hand, Eye and Motor Skills Coordination In the first years, children learn gross motor skills such as walking, dancing and rolling. During growth, children also need to hone fine motor skills such as holding, grasping and manipulating. Many puzzle games for children are designed to practice fine hand, eye coordination and motor skills. Creativity Most of the games are made with creative aspects.
Both from production, game development to use always offer value in creativity. Games are indeed created to complete the traditional learning process which is sometimes boring. This creativity is expected to be able to design spontaneous solutions that children can think of. It's important to hone creativity before having limited creativity in adulthood. Example Puzzle Game For Children Puzzle games have challenged humans for centuries. To introduce this game to children, we need to pay attention to the benefits provided by this game for cognitive development. Here are some examples of puzzle games that can be played by children:

Understanding Species Diversity (species)

Understanding Species Diversity (species)
The level of biodiversity represents the number and type of species at the site or on the planet. Biodiversity (biodiversity) is a variation of living organisms at three levels, namely the level of genes, species, and ecosystems. According to Soerjani (2016 on Molecular Identification and Diversity of Species), biodiversity is related to the uniqueness of a species and the genetic makeup of the living being. Called unique because the species lives in a special habitat or the food it eats is very typical. For example komodo (Varanus komodoensis) only exists on the islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, Gili Dasami, and Padar, pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) that live in China only eat bamboo leaves, and koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) that live in Australia only eat Eucalyptus (eucalyptus) leaves.
Based on his understanding, biodiversity can be divided into three types, namely gene diversity (genetic), species diversity (type), and ecosystem diversity. Scientists generally accept that the level of biodiversity represents the number and type of species at the site or on the planet. Species can be difficult to determine, but most biologists still feel comfortable with existing concepts and are able to identify and count eukaryotic species in many contexts. Biologists have also identified alternative biodiversity measures, some of which are important for planning how to preserve biodiversity. Species or species have an understanding of individuals who have similarities morphologically, anatomically, physiologically, and are able to mate with each other (inter hybridization) which produces fertile offspring (fertile) to continue their generation.
Diversity shows all the variations found in living things between species. Differences between species of organisms within a family are more striking, so they are more easily observed than differences between individuals within a species. Diversity at the species level occurs because of variations in the species. In taxonomic order, variations lie one level below the species. The above explained that there is uniformity at the species level but within this uniformity there is also diversity. This diversity is caused by the diversity of genes that control species. At higher taxonomic levels, species diversity can be easily observed. In the environment around it is easy to find various types of animals and plants.
In one family of grasses (Gramineae) we can find puzzle grass, rice and corn. In a family of cats (Felidae) can be found tigers, cats, lions, and cheetahs. Species diversity is the difference that can be found in the community or groups of various species that live in a place. For example in a yard there are mango, coconut, orange, rambutan, rose, jasmine, cempaka, ginger, turmeric, birds, beetles, bees, ants, butterflies, and worms. Higher species diversity is generally found places far from human life, for example in the forest.
In the forest there are more types of animals and plants than in the fields or in the garden. There are several types of organisms that have almost the same physical characteristics. For example palm group (Palmae) plants such as coconut, areca nut, palm, and palm which have leaves such as ribbons. However, these plants are different species, coconut has the name species Cocos nucifera, areca catechu named areca caten, Arenga pinnata, and palm named Elaeis guineensis. Animals of the genus Panthera, consisting of several species, including tigers (Panthera tigris), lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), and jaguars (Panthera onca). Genetic diversity is an alternative concept. Genetic diversity or variation is a raw material for adaptation to a species.
Future potential A species ‘for adaptation depends on genetic diversity that is held in the genomes of individuals in populations that make up the species. The same applies to the higher taxonomic category. A genus with a very different type of species will have genetic diversity more than one genus with similar species and have the same ecology. If there is a choice between one genus of the species to be retained, the one with the greatest potential for subsequent evolution is the most diverse genetic.

Understanding Organizational Structure

Understanding Organizational Structure
Understanding Organizational Structure - In general, every company or organization has an organizational structure. The formation of an organizational structure is the first step to carry out organizational activities or a company's plan to carry out the functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling. Understanding the organizational structure in general is an arrangement of various components or work units within the organization in the community or company. Here are some definitions of organizational structure according to experts: Okunlola (2017 on Factors affecting women participation in development projects) According to Hasibuan, the understanding of organizational structure is a description that explains the type of organization, the department of organizational position, the type of authority of officials, midwives and job relations, the command line, responsibilities, range of control and the organizational leadership system.
Robbins and Coulter (2007: 284) According to Robbins and Coulter, the notion of organizational structure is the formal framework of an organization within which the work tasks are divided, grouped and coordinated. Reksohadiprodjo and Handoko (1992: 74) According to Reksohadiprodjo and Handoko, the understanding of organizational structure is a framework that shows all activities to achieve organizational goals, relationships between functions, authority and also responsibilities. Based on the understanding of the organizational structure above, it can be concluded that the organizational structure is a picture of the framework or arrangement of relationships between functions, sections or positions and also shows the organizational hierarchy or structure as a forum for exercising authority, responsibility and reporting systems to superiors. In the end, the organizational structure will provide stability and continuity that can enable the organization to keep running even though the people in it come and go.
This Organizational Structure can help avoid or reduce confusion in carrying out tasks. Organizational Structure Function Here are some functions of the organizational structure, namely: 1. Clarity of responsibilities Within a company or organization, each member must be responsible for what is done. With the organizational structure can provide a clear picture of accountability to superiors who have given authority because the implementation of that authority must be held accountable. This is the importance of the function of the organizational structure to clarify the responsibilities of all members of the organization.
2. Clarity of position With the organizational structure it will make it clear that someone's position so that it can make it easier to coordinate or relationships because there is a connection between the completion of functions delegated to someone. 3. Clarity of the relationship path the clarity of this relationship path can facilitate each employee in carrying out his work and responsibilities because the relationship path is already drawn in the structure so that it can be easier to complete work. Of course this can make the process of completing work more effective and mutually beneficial.
4. Clarity of job description The last function of the organizational structure is the clarity of job descriptions because this structure can help if superiors or leaders can supervise and control. With this clarity of job description will also make subordinates more focused on tasks and jobs because there are clear job descriptions.
Type of Organizational Structure According to Stoner (1996: 300), organizational structure can be divided into 3 forms: a. Organizational Structure Based on Function Combine all people involved in an activity or several related activities into one part. For example an organization is divided based on function if it has separate production, marketing and sales departments. This organizational structure has the following advantages: Suitable for stable environments. Support the development of expertise. Provide opportunities for specialists. Only requires minimal coordination. It only requires small interpersonal needs.

Benefits of Azadirachta indica

Benefits of Azadirachta indica
Azadirachta indica (Nimba), also known as Neem, Nimtree, and Indian Lilac are trees that belong to the Meliaceae mahogany family. Nimba (Azadirachta indica) is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, originating from India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Neem tree (Neem) usually grows in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees now also grow on islands located in southern Iran. The fruit and seeds are a source of neem oil. Azadirachta indica Family: Meliaceae Genus: Azadirachta Common names: Neem, Indian lilac, Margosa tree Azadirachta indica (Nimba) is an herb that is widely used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Homeopathic treatment systems to treat health problems and diseases (Ninno Edibayol on Hexane Extract of Azadirachta indica)
Neem is known to have anti-cancer properties, antioxidants, wound healing, and anti-microbial properties. Neem is also known as one of the plants that almost every part of it can be used, for example Neem oil is extracted starting from seeds, leaves, to branches. Here are some of the benefits of Nimba for health: 1. Neem as Anti-Microbial & Anti-Bacteria One of the health benefits of Nimba (Azadirachta indica) is its ability to treat skin and overcome skin problems. Neem is used as one of the herbal ingredients in anti-acne face wash or as an anti-microbial herb that is used to treat several groups of bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli).
Neem leaves (neem) become one of the most widely used parts of this plant because it has many benefits. Some of the benefits of neem leaf include immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, anti-ulcer, antimalarial, anti-fungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, and anti-carcinogenic properties. 2. Neem to Prevent Gingivitis and Plaque The use of neem (Azadirachta indica) to overcome dental problems such as gingivitis, plaque and periodontitis has been widely practiced in India since a few decades ago. This is because of the antiseptic properties possessed by this herb. In one study, there were forty-five subjects who had plaque and gingivitis problems divided into three groups.
They were asked to rinse with 15 ml of mouthwash twice a day. The results of this study indicate that Azadirachta indica (Nimba) is effective in reducing periodontitis as well as Chlorhexidine. In addition, neem can also reduce gum bleeding and plaque count significantly in the non-placebo group. 3. Neem for Cervical Cancer In one study examining the antioxidant properties of neem (Azadirachta indica) in inducing apoptosis of cervical cancer cells, neem was proven to be a strong inducer of apoptois on biopsies from cervical cancer patients. Side effects Like other herbs, the use of neem must be based on the advice of a doctor.
In primates, the use of Nimba seed extract (Praneem) orally can cause miscarriage. JAFRA Clear Pore Clarifier Acne Treatment In addition to health benefits, neem also has various beauty benefits. JAFRA Clear Pore Clarifier Acne Treatment, among others, contains neem that seeps into the pores to help disguise wrinkles and reduce the appearance of blemishes on the face. JAFRA Clear Pore Clarifier Acne Treatment also helps shrink pores without causing irritation and dryness to the skin. In addition, this product also helps reduce redness and excess oil on the skin.

The acquisition process is develop an existing company

The acquisition process is develop an existing company
Understanding Acquisitions - The acquisition process is one way to develop an existing company or also save a company that is experiencing capital difficulties. Broadly speaking, the definition of this acquisition is a transaction in which a company purchases 100 percent ownership of another company to be effective by using core competencies by making the company acquired as a company that supports the business portfolio. The word acquisition comes from English, namely acquisition or take over, which can be interpreted as a company taking over capital control over another company. Acquisition comes from the word acquire which can be interpreted as getting something or profit from one's own business. While the notion of acquisition in the legal world is a legal action to take over all or most of the shares or assets of another company.
Types of Acquisitions According to Haryani (2019 on Acquisition of Economic Knowledge Journals), there are three types of acquisitions, namely: Horizontal acquisition This type of acquisition is an acquisition made by a business entity that still has the same type of business. Vertical Acquisition While the type of vertical acquisition is an acquisition carried out by a business entity that has a type of business in the downstream industry with upstream or vice versa. Acquisition of a conglomerate Conglomerate acquisition is the acquisition of a business entity that does not have the same or unrelated business fields.
This type of acquisition is usually motivated to develop or expand a conglomerate business. Benefits of Acquisitions Here are some of the benefits of the Acquisition, which are as follows: Get cash flow quickly because you already have a product and the market is clear. Obtain easy financing because creditors have more confidence in established and established companies. Get experienced employees. Get established customers so you don't have to start from scratch. Obtain an established operational and administrative system. Reducing the risk of business failure because you don't have to look for new customers. Can save time to enter a new business. Get infrastructure in achieving faster growth. Is a profitable investment. Get control of other companies. Can master the supply of raw materials and auxiliary materials.
Diversify businesses. Enlarge the size of the company. Minimize business risk. Minimize the level of business competition. Acquire new technologies belonging to other companies. Acquisition Process The stages in the acquisition process can be different because it depends on the characteristics or criteria of the acquisition and the complexity of the problems to be faced. The following stages of the acquisition process: 1. Initial Identification In this initial acquisition process the company will seek and gather various information about companies that have the potential to be acquired. All information collected aims to look at the characteristics of the company that will be acquired as well as identify the elements needed to obtain in-depth information.
2. Screening The screening process is the process of screening and selecting potential company targets to be acquired. In this screening process, it is not necessary if the target of the company to be acquired is only one target. 3. Due Diligence Due Diligence is a thorough and in-depth investigation of various aspects of the company. This due diligence has the aim of providing detailed information about the target company's condition in various aspects. This due diligence will be carried out on the aspects of law, finance, marketing, technology, organization, etc.
4. Negotiation For the acquisition to run smoothly, there must be agreement between the two parties in the target company, namely management and also shareholders. If both parties have agreed with the agreed terms between the acquirer and the target, they will make an MOU as a continuation of their negotiation process. 5. Closing If formal acquisition agreement has been carried out, the next acquisition process is closing. The definition of closing here is the closing of an acquisition transaction which also means the payment is handed over from the acquirer to the shareholders of the company that has been acquired.